globalchange  > 气候减缓与适应
DOI: 10.1002/joc.5545
How the two nodes of the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature dipole relate the climate of the surrounding regions during austral autumn
Author: Kayano M.T.; Andreoli R.V.; Garcia S.R.; de Souza R.A.F.
Source Publication: International Journal of Climatology
ISSN: 8998418
Publishing Year: 2018
Volume: 38, Issue:10
pages begin: 3927
pages end: 3941
Language: 英语
Keyword: climate variability ; climatology ; cross-equatorial mode ; precipitation ; South America ; tropical Atlantic
Scopus Keyword: Atmospheric pressure ; Atmospheric temperature ; Climate change ; Climatology ; Precipitation (chemical) ; Rain ; Submarine geophysics ; Surface properties ; Surface waters ; Tropics ; Atlantic multidecadal oscillations ; Climate variability ; Cross-equatorial flow ; cross-equatorial mode ; Intertropical convergence zone ; Sea Surface Temperature gradients ; South America ; Tropical atlantic ; Oceanography ; autumn ; climate variation ; El Nino-Southern Oscillation ; precipitation (climatology) ; rainfall ; regional climate ; sea surface temperature ; temperature gradient ; trade wind ; Atlantic Ocean ; Atlantic Ocean (South) ; Atlantic Ocean (Tropical) ; Brazil
English Abstract: The relations of both nodes of the tropical Atlantic (TA) cross-equatorial sea surface temperature (SST) gradient (GRAD) mode to the climate of northeast Brazil (NEB) during the 1901–2012 period are examined separately. The GRAD mode consists of a SST anomalous pattern anti-symmetric about the equator with centres in the region of the northeasterly and southwesterly trade winds. The positive GRAD (PGRAD) (negative GRAD [NGRAD]) modes defined by their northern or southern nodes are considered separately, as well as, if they are preceded or not by an El Niño (EN) (a La Niña, LN). The PGRAD mode defined by the northern (southern) node and preceded by an EN is indicated by PGRAD_TNA_EN (PGRAD_TSA_EN), and that not preceded by an EN is indicated by PGRAD_TNA (PGRAD_TSA). The corresponding NGRAD modes are indicated by NGRAD_TNA_LN, NGRAD_TSA_LN, NGRAD_TNA and NGRAD_TSA. Our analysis is limited to the NEB rainy season (March–May), when the GRAD mode is more pronounced and the NEB rainfall is more closely related to the TA SST variations. In general, the South Atlantic subtropical high is crucial in defining the cross-equatorial flow, responsible for the anomalous meridional positioning of the Atlantic inter-tropical convergence zone. When a positive (negative) dipole-like SST anomaly pattern is established in the TA, the negative (positive) rainfall anomalies occupy most of NEB. This is the case of the PGRAD_TSA_EN, PGRAD_TNA, NGRAD_TSA_LN and NGRAD_TNA_LN. Most of the GRAD modes defined by TNA are also related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in such a way that an EN (a LN) precedes a PGRAD (NGRAD) event, and most of the GRAD modes defined by TSA do not depend on the ENSO. Also, the PGRAD events are well distributed during both Atlantic multidecadal oscillation phases and the NGRAD events occur preferably during its cold phase. © 2018 Royal Meteorological Society
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Affiliation: Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, Brazil; Escola Superior de Tecnologia, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil; Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São José dos Campos, Brazil

Recommended Citation:
Kayano M.T.,Andreoli R.V.,Garcia S.R.,et al. How the two nodes of the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature dipole relate the climate of the surrounding regions during austral autumn[J]. International Journal of Climatology,2018-01-01,38(10)
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