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DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098361
Range-Wide Latitudinal and Elevational Temperature Gradients for the World's Terrestrial Birds: Implications under Global Climate Change
Author: Frank A. La Sorte; Stuart H. M. Butchart; Walter Jetz; Katrin Böhning-Gaese
Source Publication: PLOS ONE
ISSN: 1932-6203
Publishing Year: 2014
Date Published: 2014-5-22
Volume: 9, Issue:5
Language: 英语
Keyword: Temperature gradients ; Climate change ; Latitude ; Biogeography ; Birds ; Geographic distribution ; Species extinction ; Environmental geography
English Abstract: Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation) and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among species, and the capacity of species to utilize these gradients under climate change.
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Affiliation: Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America;BirdLife International, Cambridge, United Kingdom;Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America;Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Frankfurt (Main), Germany;Department of Biological Sciences, Goethe Universität, Frankfurt (Main), Germany

Recommended Citation:
Frank A. La Sorte,Stuart H. M. Butchart,Walter Jetz,et al. Range-Wide Latitudinal and Elevational Temperature Gradients for the World's Terrestrial Birds: Implications under Global Climate Change[J]. PLOS ONE,2014-01-01,9(5)
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