globalchange  > 影响、适应和脆弱性
DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50808
Exploring the faint young Sun problem and the possible climates of the Archean Earth with a 3-D GCM
Author: Charnay B.; Forget F.; Wordsworth R.; Leconte J.; Millour E.; Codron F.; Spiga A.
Source Publication: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
ISSN: 21698996
Publishing Year: 2013
Volume: 118, Issue:18
pages begin: 10414
pages end: 10431
Language: 英语
Keyword: Archean ; early Earth ; paleo-climates
Scopus Keyword: Atmospheric movements ; Atmospheric pressure ; Atmospheric temperature ; Drops ; Gallium ; Glacial geology ; Greenhouse gases ; Methane ; Archean ; Early Earth ; Earth's rotation ; Faint young sun problems ; Global climate model ; paleo-climates ; Surface temperatures ; Temperate climate ; Carbon dioxide ; albedo ; Archean ; atmospheric convection ; atmospheric pressure ; climate change ; climate modeling ; cloud ; Earth rotation ; glaciation ; global climate ; greenhouse gas ; oceanic current
English Abstract: Different solutions have been proposed to solve the "faint young Sun problem," defined by the fact that the Earth was not fully frozen during the Archean despite the fainter Sun. Most previous studies were performed with simple 1-D radiative convective models and did not account well for the clouds and ice-albedo feedback or the atmospheric and oceanic transport of energy. We apply a global climate model (GCM) to test the different solutions to the faint young Sun problem. We explore the effect of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), atmospheric pressure, cloud droplet size, land distribution, and Earth's rotation rate. We show that neglecting organic haze, 100 mbar of CO2 with 2 mbar of CH4 at 3.8 Ga and 10 mbar of CO 2 with 2 mbar of CH4 at 2.5 Ga allow a temperate climate (mean surface temperature between 10°C and 20°C). Such amounts of greenhouse gases remain consistent with the geological data. Removing continents produces a warming lower than +4°C. The effect of rotation rate is even more limited. Larger droplets (radii of 17 μm versus 12 μm) and a doubling of the atmospheric pressure produce a similar warming of around +7°C. In our model, ice-free water belts can be maintained up to 25°N/S with less than 1 mbar of CO2 and no methane. An interesting cloud feedback appears above cold oceans, stopping the glaciation. Such a resistance against full glaciation tends to strongly mitigate the faint young Sun problem. Key PointsNew constraints on the amount of greenhouse gases to get a temperate climateWaterbelt can be maintained with less than 1 mbar of CO2 and no methaneThe effects of larger cloud droplets and a higher pressure are quantified ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
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被引频次[WOS]:74   [查看WOS记录]     [查看WOS中相关记录]
Document Type: 期刊论文
Appears in Collections:影响、适应和脆弱性

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Affiliation: Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, FR-75252 Paris CEDEX 05, France; Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

Recommended Citation:
Charnay B.,Forget F.,Wordsworth R.,et al. Exploring the faint young Sun problem and the possible climates of the Archean Earth with a 3-D GCM[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres,2013-01-01,118(18)
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