globalchange  > 影响、适应和脆弱性
DOI: 10.1002/2015JD024623
Title:
Wet scavenging of soluble gases in DC3 deep convective storms using WRF-Chem simulations and aircraft observations
Author: Bela M.M.; Barth M.C.; Toon O.B.; Fried A.; Homeyer C.R.; Morrison H.; Cummings K.A.; Li Y.; Pickering K.E.; Allen D.J.; Yang Q.; Wennberg P.O.; Crounse J.D.; St Clair J.M.; Teng A.P.; O'Sullivan D.; Huey L.G.; Chen D.; Liu X.; Blake D.R.; Blake N.J.; Apel E.C.; Hornbrook R.S.; Flocke F.; Campos T.; Diskin G.
Source Publication: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
ISSN: 2169897X
Publishing Year: 2016
Volume: 121, Issue:8
pages begin: 4233
pages end: 4257
Language: 英语
Keyword: deep convective storms ; ice retention ; trace gases ; wet scavenging ; WRF-Chem
Scopus Keyword: airborne survey ; atmospheric convection ; atmospheric modeling ; formaldehyde ; hydrogen peroxide ; lightning ; NEXRAD ; nitric acid ; nitrogen oxides ; retention ; scavenging (chemistry) ; storm ; sulfur dioxide ; trace gas ; weather forecasting ; wet deposition ; Alabama ; Colorado ; Oklahoma [United States] ; United States
English Abstract: We examine wet scavenging of soluble trace gases in storms observed during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaign. We conduct high-resolution simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) of a severe storm in Oklahoma. The model represents well the storm location, size, and structure as compared with Next Generation Weather Radar reflectivity, and simulated CO transport is consistent with aircraft observations. Scavenging efficiencies (SEs) between inflow and outflow of soluble species are calculated from aircraft measurements and model simulations. Using a simple wet scavenging scheme, we simulate the SE of each soluble species within the error bars of the observations. The simulated SEs of all species except nitric acid (HNO3) are highly sensitive to the values specified for the fractions retained in ice when cloud water freezes. To reproduce the observations, we must assume zero ice retention for formaldehyde (CH2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and complete retention for methyl hydrogen peroxide (CH3OOH) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), likely to compensate for the lack of aqueous chemistry in the model. We then compare scavenging efficiencies among storms that formed in Alabama and northeast Colorado and the Oklahoma storm. Significant differences in SEs are seen among storms and species. More scavenging of HNO3 and less removal of CH3OOH are seen in storms with higher maximum flash rates, an indication of more graupel mass. Graupel is associated with mixed-phase scavenging and lightning production of nitrogen oxides (NOx), processes that may explain the observed differences in HNO3 and CH3OOH scavenging. ©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
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Document Type: 期刊论文
Identifier: http://119.78.100.158/handle/2HF3EXSE/62899
Appears in Collections:影响、适应和脆弱性
气候减缓与适应

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Affiliation: Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, United States; Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, United States; National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, United States; Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, United States; School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, United States; Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, United States; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, United States; Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States; Division of Engineering and Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States; Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, United States; U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD, United States; School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States; Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States; NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, United States

Recommended Citation:
Bela M.M.,Barth M.C.,Toon O.B.,et al. Wet scavenging of soluble gases in DC3 deep convective storms using WRF-Chem simulations and aircraft observations[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres,2016-01-01,121(8)
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