globalchange  > 影响、适应和脆弱性
DOI: 10.1029/2010JD013884
Multimodel assessment of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere: Extratropics
Author: Hegglin M.I.; Gettelman A.; Hoor P.; Krichevsky R.; Manney G.L.; Pan L.L.; Son S.-W.; Stiller G.; Tilmes S.; Walker K.A.; Eyring V.; Shepherd T.G.; Waugh D.; Akiyoshi H.; Añel J.A.; Austin J.; Baumgaertner A.; Bekki S.; Braesicke P.; Brühl C.; Butchart N.; Chipperfield M.; Dameris M.; Dhomse S.; Frith S.; Garny H.; Hardiman S.C.; Jöckel P.; Kinnison D.E.; Lamarque J.F.; Mancini E.; Michou M.; Morgenstern O.; Nakamura T.; Olivié D.; Pawson S.; Pitari G.; Plummer D.A.; Pyle J.A.; Rozanov E.; Scinocca J.F.; Shibata K.; Smale D.; Teyssdre H.; Tian W.; Yamashita Y.
Source Publication: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
ISSN: 1480227
Publishing Year: 2016
Volume: 115, Issue:20
Language: 英语
Scopus Keyword: Atmospheric chemistry ; Atmospherics ; Clouds ; Troposphere ; Water vapor ; Brewer-Dobson circulation ; Chemical tracers ; Chemistry-climate models ; Extratropical ; Extratropical tropopause ; Extratropics ; Inversion layer ; Low resolution ; Lower stratosphere ; Mean values ; Meteorological analysis ; Model performance ; Model resolution ; Multi-model ; Process-oriented ; Satellite observations ; Seasonal cycle ; Seasonality ; Semi-Lagrangian ; Static stability ; Transition layers ; Transport characteristics ; Tropospheric chemistry ; Upper troposphere ; Vertical resolution ; Wide spreads ; Climate models ; airborne survey ; aircraft ; atmospheric chemistry ; atmospheric circulation ; atmospheric modeling ; atmospheric transport ; climate modeling ; extratropical environment ; inversion layer ; Lagrangian analysis ; model test ; performance assessment ; satellite imagery ; seasonal variation ; stratosphere ; tracer ; troposphere ; water vapor
English Abstract: A multimodel assessment of the performance of chemistry-climate models (CCMs) in the extratropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) is conducted for the first time. Process-oriented diagnostics are used to validate dynamical and transport characteristics of 18 CCMs using meteorological analyses and aircraft and satellite observations. The main dynamical and chemical climatological characteristics of the extratropical UTLS are generally well represented by the models, despite the limited horizontal and vertical resolution. The seasonal cycle of lowermost stratospheric mass is realistic, however with a wide spread in its mean value. A tropopause inversion layer is present in most models, although the maximum in static stability is located too high above the tropopause and is somewhat too weak, as expected from limited model resolution. Similar comments apply to the extratropical tropopause transition layer. The seasonality in lower stratospheric chemical tracers is consistent with the seasonality in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. Both vertical and meridional tracer gradients are of similar strength to those found in observations. Models that perform less well tend to use a semi-Lagrangian transport scheme and/or have a very low resolution. Two models, and the multimodel mean, score consistently well on all diagnostics, while seven other models score well on all diagnostics except the seasonal cycle of water vapor. Only four of the models are consistently below average. The lack of tropospheric chemistry in most models limits their evaluation in the upper troposphere. Finally, the UTLS is relatively sparsely sampled by observations, limiting our ability to quantitatively evaluate many aspects of model performance. Copyright © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.
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Document Type: 期刊论文
Appears in Collections:影响、适应和脆弱性

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Affiliation: Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada; Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1850 Table Mesa Dr., Boulder, CO 80305, United States; Max Planck Institut für Chemie, D-55020 Mainz, Germany; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, United States; New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM, United States; Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T5, Canada; Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, PO Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany; Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada; Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphre, Oberpfaffenhofen, D-82234 Wessling, Germany; Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218, United States; National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan; Environmental Physics Laboratory, Universidade de Vigo, E-32004 Ourense, Spain, Spain; Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, NOAA, Princeton, NJ 08540, United States; LATMOS, Institut Pierre-Simone Laplace, UVSQ, F-75252 Paris, France; Department of Chemistry, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1TN, United Kingdom; Met Office, Exeter EX1 3PB, United Kingdom; School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom; Global Modelling and Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, United States; Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Degli Studi de l'Aquila, I-67010 Coppito (AQ), Italy; GAME/CNRM, Météo-France, CNRS, F-31400 Toulouse, France; National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Lauder, New Zealand; Environment Canada, Toronto, ON M3H 5T4, Canada; Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, CH-7260 Davos, Switzerland; Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland; Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada; Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan

Recommended Citation:
Hegglin M.I.,Gettelman A.,Hoor P.,et al. Multimodel assessment of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere: Extratropics[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres,2016-01-01,115(20)
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